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What is post-traumatic stress disorder?

Posted on Tuesday, December 22, 2020

You feel on edge. Nightmares keep coming back. Sudden noises make you jump. You’re staying at home more and more. Could you have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)?

If you have experienced severe trauma or a life-threatening event — whether during a time of war or in a noncombat situation — you may develop symptoms of post-traumatic stress, or what is commonly known as PTSD. Maybe during the event you felt as if your life or the lives of others were in danger or that you had no control over what was happening. While in the military, you may have witnessed people being injured or dying, or you may have experienced physical harm yourself.

Some of the most common symptoms of PTSD include recurring memories or nightmares of the event, sleeplessness, loss of interest, and feelings of numbness, anger or irritability, or being constantly on guard, but there are many ways PTSD can impact your everyday life. Sometimes these symptoms don't surface for months or even years after the event occurred or after returning from deployment. They may also come and go. If these problems persist or they're disrupting your daily life, you may have PTSD.

Some factors can increase the likelihood of a traumatic event leading to PTSD, such as:

Go to to see Veterans who served during the following periods:

  • Posts 9/11 Era 92001 – 20200

  • Desert Era (1990-2000)

  • Post-Vietnam War Era (1976-1989)

  • Vietnam War Era (1960-1975)

  • Post Korean War Era (1954 – 1959)

  • WWII through Korean War Era (1941 – 1953)

What are the signs of post-traumatic stress disorder?

A wide variety of symptoms may be signs that you are experiencing post-traumatic stress disorder. The following are some of the most common symptoms of PTSD that you or those around you may have noticed:

It’s not just the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder but also how you may react to them that can disrupt your life. You may:

What is the treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder?

If you show signs of PTSD, you don't just have to live with it. In recent years, researchers have dramatically increased our understanding of what causes PTSD and how to treat it. Hundreds of thousands of Veterans who served in the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard have gotten treatment for PTSD and found significant relief from their symptoms.

Two types of treatment have been shown to be effective for treating PTSD: counseling and medication. Professional therapy or counseling can help you understand your thoughts and reactions and help you learn techniques to cope with challenging situations. Research has shown several specific types of counseling to be very effective for treating PTSD. Medications can also be used to help reduce tension or irritability or to improve sleep. The class of medications most commonly used for PTSD is called "selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors," but a doctor can work with you to figure out which medication works best for you.

"In therapy I learned how to respond differently to the thoughts

that used to get stuck in my head."

In just a few months, these treatments can produce positive and meaningful changes in your symptoms and quality of life. They can help you understand and change how you think about your trauma and how you react to stressful memories. You may need to work with your doctor or counselor and try different types of treatment before finding the one that’s best for dealing with your PTSD symptoms.

What can I do if I think I have post-traumatic stress disorder?

In addition to getting treatment, you can adjust your lifestyle to help relieve PTSD symptoms. For example, talking with other Veterans who have experienced trauma can help you connect with and trust others; exercising can help reduce physical tension; and volunteering can help you reconnect with your community. You also can let your friends and family know when certain places or activities make you uncomfortable.

“I wanted to keep the war away from my family, but I brought the war with me every time I opened the door. It helps to talk with them about how I feel.”

Your close friends and family may be the first to notice that you’re having a tough time. Turn to them when you are ready to talk. It can be helpful to share what you’re experiencing, and they may be able to provide support and help you find the right treatment for you.

Take the next step to connect with care.

Every day, Veterans from all military service branches and eras connect with proven resources and effective treatments for anxiety disorders. Here’s how to take the next step: the one that’s right for you.

Already enrolled in VA and interested in mental health support? Schedule a mental health appointment.

  • If you’re already enrolled and using VA health care, the fastest way to schedule VA appointments is to call the VA facility where you want to receive care.

  • With VA Appointments tools, you can schedule some VA health care appointments online, view details about upcoming appointments, and organize your health care calendar.

  • If you’re not using VA medical services, contact your nearest VA medical center or Vet Center to talk about your needs.

What about other options at VA? VA offers a variety of tools and resources.

  • The Veteran Training online self-help portal for overcoming everyday challenges includes modules on managing anger, developing parenting and problem-solving skills, and more.

  • Mental health apps for Veterans cover a variety of topics, ranging from PTSD to anger management to quitting smoking.

  • VA TeleMental Health connects you with a VA mental health provider through a computer or mobile device in your home or at your nearest VA health facility. You can learn more about this option from your local VA medical center.

  • Vet Centers provide support, counseling, and readjustment services for Veterans and active duty service members (including members of the National Guard and Reserve) who have served on active military duty in any combat theater or area of hostility or have experienced a military sexual trauma. Find a Vet Center near you or call 1-877-WAR-VETS (1-877-927-8387) to talk with a fellow combat Veteran about your experiences, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year.

What about support beyond VA?

There’s a whole community of support ready to help with whatever you’re going through. Use the VA’s Covid Coach Mobile app to find resources near you:

During times of stress, it’s especially important to set time aside for self-care. Join the National Center for PTSD’s 30 Days of Self Care with the the COVID Coach mobile app. We will walk you through 30 different ideas for self-care practices – one for each day of the month.

To get started, download the COVID Coach app on iOS or Android, and follow the National Center for PTSD on Facebook or Twitter for daily prompts. You can also download the 30 Days of Self-Care with COVID Coach guidebook that has all of the different suggestions for self-care practices.

How does it work?

Our COVID Coach mobile app offers a number of practices and tools to help you practice self-care. Many exercises can be completed in just a few minutes. Even if you aren’t feeling particularly stressed, it’s important to get into a good self-care routine to prevent stress. All it takes is 30 days to establish a new habit, so visit Day 1 to get started on the path to self-care.

Who is it for?

This self-care guide is for everyone. The COVID Coach app was created by the Mobile Apps Team at the National Center for PTSD. As with most of our resources, this app includes some content and resources specifically for Veterans, but the majority of the information can be used by anyone. Please feel free to share this guidebook with Veterans, family members, friends, and anyone else you think may benefit from making time for daily self-care.

Things people are saying about COVID Coach:

“It’s great for the help you need when you’re by yourself and need a break from things. It has helped me greatly.”

“Excellent resource. I’m the Mental Health Flight Commander at Fairchild Air Force Base and I endorse this application.”

“Very excited to use this app more! It’s easy to use and seems to pull you right out of a hard place.”

When to start?

This guide contains a list of 30 self-care practices – one for each day of the month. However, there is no need to wait for the beginning of the month to get started. Feel free to try as many or as few of these exercises as you’d like, on a schedule that works for you. This guide could be used Monday-Friday, or Sunday-Saturday. It is up to you when and how to work the activities into your routine. This isn’t about putting pressure on yourself to do the things you “should be” doing – it’s about making time to do things to relax and recharge.

Challenge accepted? Let’s get started.

Visit the COVID Coach app web page and download the app for iOS or Android.


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