top of page


Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. People with schizophrenia may seem like they have lost touch with reality.



The symptoms of schizophrenia fall into three categories:

Positive symptoms: “Positive” symptoms are psychotic behaviors not generally seen in healthy people. People with positive symptoms may “lose touch” with some aspects of reality.

  • Hallucinations

  • Delusions

  • Thought disorders (unusual or dysfunctional ways of thinking)

  • Movement disorders (agitated body movements)


Negative symptoms: “Negative” symptoms are associated with disruptions to normal emotions and behaviors.

  • “Flat affect” (reduced expression of emotions via facial expression or voice tone)

  • Reduced feelings of pleasure in everyday life

  • Difficulty beginning and sustaining activities

  • Reduced speaking


Cognitive symptoms: For some patients, the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia are subtle, but for others, they are more severe and patients may notice changes in their memory or other aspects of thinking.

  • Poor “executive functioning” (the ability to understand information and use it to make decisions)

  • Trouble focusing or paying attention

  • Problems with “working memory” (the ability to use information immediately after learning it)


There are several factors that contribute to the risk of developing schizophrenia.

Genes and environment: Scientists have long known that schizophrenia sometimes runs in families. However, there are many people who have schizophrenia who don’t have a family member with the disorder and conversely, many people with one or more family members with the disorder who do not develop it themselves.

Scientists believe that many different genes may increase the risk of schizophrenia, but that no single gene causes the disorder by itself. It is not yet possible to use genetic information to predict who will develop schizophrenia.

Scientists also think that interactions between genes and aspects of the individual’s environment are necessary for schizophrenia to develop. Environmental factors may involve:

  • Exposure to viruses

  • Malnutrition before birth

  • Problems during birth

  • Psychosocial factors

Different brain chemistry and structure: Scientists think that an imbalance in the complex, interrelated chemical reactions of the brain involving the neurotransmitters (substances that brain cells use to communicate with each other) dopamine and glutamate, and possibly others, plays a role in schizophrenia.

Some experts also think problems during brain development before birth may lead to faulty connections. The brain also undergoes major changes during puberty, and these changes could trigger psychotic symptoms in people who are vulnerable due to genetics or brain differences.


Because the causes of schizophrenia are still unknown, treatments focus on eliminating the symptoms of the disease. 

  • Antipsychotic medications are usually taken daily in pill or liquid form. Some antipsychotics are injections that are given once or twice a month. Some people have side effects when they start taking medications, but most side effects go away after a few days. Doctors and patients can work together to find the best medication or medication combination, and the right dose.

  • Psychosocial treatments are helpful after patients and their doctor find a medication that works. Learning and using coping skills to address the everyday challenges of schizophrenia helps people to pursue their life goals, such as attending school or work. Individuals who participate in regular psychosocial treatment are less likely to have relapses or be hospitalized.


Coordinated specialty care (CSC)

This treatment model integrates medication, psychosocial therapies, case management, family involvement, and supported education and employment services, all aimed at reducing symptoms and improving quality of life.

The NIMH Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode (RAISE) research project seeks to fundamentally change the trajectory and prognosis of schizophrenia through coordinated specialty care treatment in the earliest stages of the disorder. RAISE is designed to reduce the likelihood of long-term disability that people with schizophrenia often experience and help them lead productive, independent lives.

For more information on coordinated specialty care and other treatments, see the Psychotherapies webpage at:

National Institute on Mental Health at

Here are some things you can do to help your loved one:

  • Get them treatment and encourage them to stay in treatment.

  • Research support groups in your area.

  • Remember that their beliefs or hallucinations seem very real to them

  • Be respectful, supportive, and kind without tolerating dangerous or inappropriate behavior

bottom of page